Guide to transliteration

Greek, Cyrillic, Armenian, Georgian scripts

     Approximate pronunciation
English French German Polish Turkish
a   a a a a
ă an ne -e    
c ts ts z c ts
č ch tch tsch cz ç
ch     ch ch  
ð the        
e   e e e e
ġ         ğ
ğ         ğ
h h   h   h
i   i i i i
j y y j j y
ŋ ng   ng    
o   o o o o
ö   eu ö   ö
s ss ss ss s s
š sh ch sch sz ş
þ thin        
u   ou u u u
ü   u ü   ü
v v v w w v
w w oui      
x     ch ch  
x = ks  [Greek]
y = i   [Greek]
y       y ı
z z z s z z
ž   j   rz j
glottal stop
palatal (soft) consonants
velar (hard) consonants
ˉ historically long vowels

Hebrew script

     Approximate pronunciation
English French German Polish Russian
a   a a a а
c ts ts z c ц
č ch tch tsch cz ч
ch     ch ch х
e   e e e э
h h   h    
ħ     ch ch х
i   i i i и
kh     ch ch х
o   o o o о
q k q k k к
s ss ss ss s с
ś ss ss ss s с
š sh ch sch sz ш
u   ou u u у
v v v w w в
w v v w w в
y y y j j й
z z z s z з
ž   j   rz ж
T = t
glottal stop or silent
glottal stop or silent
ˉ historically long vowels
˘ historically reduced vowels

Arabic script and Indic scripts

     Approximate pronunciation
English French Spanish Greek Russian
a   a a α а
å all        
c ch tch ch   ч
č ch tch ch   ч
ð the     δ  
e   e e ε э
ġ     g γ  
ğ     g γ  
ǧ j dj     дж
i   i i ι и
j j dj     дж
ñ   gn ñ   нь
ŋ ng   ng γγ  
o   o o ο о
s ss ss   σ с
ś sh ch     ш
š sh ch     ш
þ thin   z θ  
u   ou u ου у
w w oui      
x     j χ х
y y y y γι й
z z z   ζ з
ž   j     ж
D d velarized
Ð ð velarized
H h pharyngeal  [Arabic]
= h  [other languages]
S s velarized  [Arabic]
= s  [other languages]
T t velarized  [Arabic]
= t  [other languages]
Z ð velarized  [Arabic]
= z  [other languages]
Ż = z
glottal stop or hiatus
ˉ long vowels
˜ nasal vowels
palatal consonants
. retroflex consonants

Bibliographic references


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Andreas Prilop
25 August 2013